I like the idea of learning more about a subject of which you have limited knowledge. The author said what he learned brings theological questions to mind. I guess so.
When we encounter subjects - related to this or not - that push against our theological beliefs, what should we do? Here are a few keys to help you if you struggle with this.
First, pray about it. God doesn't want you to be confused and he will help bring clarity to things you don't know. Another reason to pray is that it will help you as you follow the next keys - especially the last one!
Second, know that the Bible is true. There is nothing in the Bible that is false or misleading. The truths in scripture can never lead you into false beliefs. If you are wishy-washy on the inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible you will struggle more than you should with issues like the transgender debate.
Third, read the Bible. How can I hold to biblical truths if I don't know them? Listening to sermons and participating in group Bible studies are great ways to learn scripture. By themselves these cannot teach you all you need to know. God's Spirit does a lot of things for believers, and one of them is to teach us truth. As you read the Bible you will have clarity on some issues and will be confused on others. Stay with it because the Holy Spirit is teaching you; sometimes is takes a little time and repetition.
Fourth, have conversations with people who hold to Christian beliefs. Iron sharpens iron and though you may not feel very "iron-y" you can learn from others. And they'll probably learn something from you; remember, the Spirit is teaching you, too!
Fifth, have conversation with people who hold opposing beliefs. Simply talking with someone who holds a different opinion doesn't mean you agree with them. And it doesn't mean you have to argue with them. And it doesn't mean you think you may be wrong. Those conversations may be in person or electronically or through books and articles. Hearing opposing views may help you see where you can correct what you believe. It can also help solidify your faith in what you believe. Don't be afraid to talk with people you don't agree with. The purpose is not to moderate your beliefs but to correct and/or solidify them.
What would you add to this list of keys to dealing with hard issues?